Hood Family and Coal Mining



Coalmining methods

Bringing Coal to the Surface

  • Bearers - the use of women and children carrying the loads of coal on their backs from the coalface.
  • Putting - wooden hutches or carts filled with coal, pulled by women and children attached to the cart with a harness.
  • Stair or Ladder Pits - a series of ladders used by coalbearers to climb to the surface carrying their loads of coal on their backs.
  • Horse Gins - A horse driven winding machine used to raise coal in tubs or baskets.
  • Others methods of raising coal such as inclined planes were used to a very small extent.

Coal Mining Methods

  • Pillar and Stoop - coal is removed in a grid like way leaving large pillars of coal untouched to support the roof of the seam.
  • Longwall - All coal is extracted along a coalface while the roof is supported by wooden pit-props. As the coal face advanced the props are removed and the roof crushes down gradually.

Early coalmining laws



Duddingston, Niddry, Edmonston, Woolmet













As far as possible in all transcriptions, I have retained all original spellings, and abbreviations, but sometimes amended the puctuation and capitalisation in places to make things clearer.

Text in square brackets [  ] is usually to explain something in the text or show an abbreviated word in full

© 2012   A Russell